SCHOLEDGE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MULTIDISCIPLINARY & ALLIED STUDIES

VOL. 2, ISSUE 5 (MAY 2015) ISSN-2394-336X

www.scholedge.org; www.journal.scholedge.org; www.library.scholedge.org

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HINDRANCES IN THE USAGE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY AMONG PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR UNIVERSITIES

1 Shandana Arshad & 2 Hafsa Ahmed

1, 2 Researcher, NUML, PAKISTAN.

ABSTRACT

The present study was to explore the hindrances in the use of information communication technologies in public and private sectors universities in Islamabad. Problem designed to explore the hindrances in the usage of ICT, it future aim to investigate the role of management in popularising ICT among private and public sector universities. Objectives of the study included to identify the hindrances in the use of ICT in private and public sectors universities, to find out the reason in the deficiency of ICT facilities available in private and public sectors universities, to find out the factors which are hindering teacher and learner in use of ICT. The sample technique used in this study was stratified sampling. The population of this study was private and public universities in Islamabad whereas sample was considered as 40 teachers and 60 students from 2 public and 2 private universities in Islamabad. The study found out that there are significant hindrances in the use of information and communication technology (ICT) among teachers & students of public and private universities in teaching and learning process. Study reveals the age differences in prospective of teachers & student perception that the level of hindrances is higher among middle age teachers as compared to young and old age. Study reveals gender differences in prospective of teachers and student perceptions that male university teachers & male university students are more facing hindrances in the use of ICT in teaching leaning process as compared to female university teachers & students. Study found out that the hindrances in the use of ICT is higher among MPHIL teachers and students as compared to MASTERS & PHD programme of teachers & BS and MASTERS programme of students. Study elaborates that level of hindrances in the use of ICT is more in private sectors universities teachers & students as compared to public sectors universities teachers & students. The mean score of the teachers whose income is 30,000-50,000 facing more hindrances in the use of ICT as compared to teachers whose income is 10,000,30000 & <50,000. Study shows that Permanent teachers of private and public sectors universities are facing more hindrances as compared to contract teachers of private & public sectors universities. The study was useful to comprehend the hindrance to the use of ICT in teaching and learning environment. It was also helpful because it provide guidance for the way to increase the use of technology integration. It was also helpful to investigate the basic obstacles, may give guidance to educator and teachers to overcome on those hindrances and become successful adopters of technology. It also provided recommendation on improving ICT in universities.

KEYWORDS: Hindrances, Usage of Information and Communication Technology, Public and Private Sector Universities.


1. INTRODUCTION

We are living in 21st century, and the most important demand of this era is scientific and technical development .During last twenty five years man has achieved more in this field. According to very careful estimation every five years, the volume of information is doubling. This increase in information in both astonishing and terrified but certainly these both factor cannot continue without having some make effect upon the life of every person present today. Now a days it is belief that ICT is only the backbone of information society, but also a significance instrument and catalyst to influence the reforms of education that change our learner to the productive worker of knowledge.(Irum Aneela,2008 P,1)“ICTs are diverse set of technological tools and resources, used to handle information and communication.”

“It includes any communication application or device e-g computer, internet, cellular phone, broadcasting technology (radio, TV) satellite system as well as the various service and application associated with them such as distance learning and video conferencing. (Abu Bakar, Zaitun, 2006 P, 1)”

ICT have ability to accelerate, innovate, enrich to encourage, motivate and deepened skills of students as well as strengthens teaching. It increase flexibility in deliverance of education so that student can obtain knowledge anywhere any time .It focuses on the student how they are learned and way how they are taught. The process is driven by student not by teachers. This change would prepare pupil for long life as well as enhance the effective learning.

It transfers content from content centred to competence based. The delivery mode of curricula has now shifted from teacher centred to student centred form of delivery (Noor _ul_amin, Syed P, 6). ICT has removed communication barrier, it allows for the creation of digital tools like digital libraries where professionals, learner, and teachers can take research material anytime and anywhere. It simply removes geographical barriers and improves quality of education, to give direction to teachers in their professions and help student to learn more effectively (Mzee Awuor, Fredrick, 2013 P, 2).

But unfortunately there are many hurdles found in the use of ICT in private and public sector universities, which includes lack of competence and skills, limited knowledge how to utilize, lack of internet facilities, lack of computers facilities ,lack of technical support .Under developing countries ,face a economic hardship ,devices are too much expensive and it cannot be affordable, inadequate numbers of ICT related courses, resist to change is an important factor in the implementation of ICT in private and public sectors universities.

2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The problem of the study was to explore hindrances in the use of ICT in the public and private universities of Islamabad. It future aims to investigate the role of management in popularising ICT among private and public sector universities.

3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To identify the hindrances in the use of ICT in private and public sectors universities.

2. To find out the reason in the deficiency of ICT facilities available in private and public sectors universities.

3. To find out the factors that is hindering teacher and learner in use of ICT.

4. HYPOTHESIS

Public and private sector universities differ significantly in providing facilities for the use of ICTs.

5. POPULATION

All the teachers and students of private and public sectors universities.

6. SAMPLE

A stratified random sample of 40 teacher & 60

students of four private and public universities in Islamabad among them 2 are private and 2 are public sectors universities.

7. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

After going through the relevant literature, 2 questionnaires were developed, separately for teachers and students of university level. Teacher’s questionnaire was consisted of 24 items and student’s questionnaire was consisted of 20 items.

8. DATA COLLECTION

For the data collection 4 universities of Islamabad were visited. After taking permission, individually contact with teachers and students during university time. They were requested to give honest and reliable response without leaving any items. At the end suggestion item was included. All the teachers and students return back questionnaires with 100 % response.

9. DATA ANALYSIS

After collecting the data, whole data was transfer to computer with the help of software SPSS 16 various suitable statistical techniques were used to reach at the draw conclusion such as, Cronbach’s Alpha reliability, correlations, coefficient of Mean, Standard Deviations and ANOVA.

10. RESULTS

Reliability of teacher’s questionnaire was determined by dividing the test into two parts. The reliability of first part consisting of 12 items is 0.676 and reliability of second part consisting of 12 item is 0.791 & their correlation is 0.624.Reliability of students’ questionnaire was also determined by dividing the test into two parts. The reliability of first part consists of ten items is .779 and reliability of second part consists of 10 item is 0.606 & there correlation is 0.410.


Inter scale Correlations of Teachers’ Scores on ICT Hindrances Questionnaire

Table #1

Interscale Correlation of Teachers scores

Subscales 1 2 3 4

Difficulty faced by teacher 1

Management attitude .394** 1

ICT awareness .509** .143** 1

ICT Tools Availability .599 .429** .328 ** 1

Total .839** .698** .534*** .852**

Table no 1 show the correlation of teachers score on the hindrances’ in the use of ICT with total and its subscale. The highest correlation among all is in between the teachers and ICT Tools Availability which is .852**.This table also describes the inter correlation of hindrances in the use of ICT in public and private sectors universities in Islamabad. The highest correlation exists between difficulty faces by Teachers and ICT Tools Availability that is .599**.

Inter scale Correlations of Student’s Scores on ICT Hindrances Questionnaire

Table # 2

Interscale Correlations of Students Scores

Subscale 1 2 3 4

Difficulty face by teachers 1

Management attitude .516** 1

ICT Tools .351** .596** 1

ICT Awareness .246** .293** . 312** 1

Total .750** .849** .803** 1

Table 2 indicates the correlation is shown between students and its subscale .The highest correlation exist between students and ICT Tools which is .849** and correlation between the subscales of hindrances in the use of ICT in management attitude and ICT Tools that is .596**.

Correlation between students and teachers

Table # 3

Correlation between students and teachers.

Students Teachers

Students

Teachers 0.13

Table no 3 shows the interrelation between hindrances’ faces by Teachers and Students which that there exists hindrances in the use of ICT among universities.

Age wise Comparison of Mean & Standard Deviation of Hindrance in the use of ICT face by University Teachers

Table # 10

For measuring the hindrance in the use of ICT of Teachers in public and private sectors universities for the variable “Age” Mean and Standard Deviation were computed.

AGE

Subscale of ICT Hindrances Questionnaire

21-30

(N=24)

31-40

(N=12)

41-50

(N=4)

Difficulty face by teachers

M SD

24.2 3.7

M SD

25.5 3.3

M SD

23.0 5.8

Management Attitude

12.5 3.3

13.3 4.3

11.0 3.5

ICT Awareness

19.7 5.0

20.5 3.4

21.7 5.0

ICT Tools

7.0 1.7

7.1 1.6

6.5 1.7

Total

63.4 13.7

66.4 9.4

62.2 16

Table no 10 shows Means and Standard Deviation of private and public sectors universities on hindrances in the use of ICT for the variable age. Result indicates the level of hindrances is higher among 31-40 ages Teacher. The major hindrances faced by various group of teachers were lack of ICT awareness and next was attitude of management.

Age wise Comparison of Mean & Standard Deviation of Hindrances in the use of ICT face by University Student

Table # 11

For measuring the hindrance in the use of ICT of Teachers in Public and Private sectors universities for the variable “age” Mean and Standard Deviation were computed.

AGE

Subscale of ICT Hindrances Questionnaire

20-30

(N=51)

31-40

(N=7)

41-50

( N=2)

Difficulty face by student

M SD

14.5 3.3

M SD

13.4 14.1

M SD

16.5 .7

Management Attitude

12.5 3.4

12.7 2.4

10.5 07

ICT Awareness

7.0 1.6

7.0 0.8

6.5 .7

ICT Tools

15.8 3.7

17.2 2.0

17.0 .00

Total

49.8 12

50.3 19.3

50.0 8.4

The above table no 11 shows Means and Standard Deviation of private and public sectors universities on hindrance in the use of ICT for the variable age. Result indicates the level of hindrances is higher among 31-40 years age. The major hindrances faced by various groups of students were lack of ICT related equipment, next higher was management attitude.

Gender wise Comparison of Mean & Standard Deviation of Hindrance in the use of ICT face by University Teachers

Table # 12

For measuring the hindrances in the use of ICT of Teachers in Public and Private sectors universities for the variable “Gender” Mean and Standard Deviation were computed.

GENDER

Subscale of ICT Hindrances Questionnaire

Male

(N=17)

Female

(N=23)

Difficulty face by teachers

M SD

24.6 4.2

M SD

24.4 3.5

Management Attitude

13.2 4.1

12.1 3.2

ICT Awareness

21.7 4.0

19.0 4.7

ICT Tools

7.4 1.8

6.7 1.4

Total

66.9 14.1

62.2 12.8

The above table no 12 shows Means and Standard Deviation of private and public sectors universities on hindrance in the use of ICT for the variable gender. Result indicates the level of hindrance is higher among Male Teachers. The major hindrances faced by various groups of teachers were ICT Awarness, next higher was management attitude.

Gender wise Comparison of Mean & Standard Deviation of Hindrances in the use of ICT face by University Student

Table # 13

For measuring the hindrance in the use of ICT of Teachers in Public and Private sectors universities for the variable “Gender” Mean and Standard Deviation were computed.

Gender

Subscale of ICT Hindrances Questionnaire

Male

(N=25)

Female

(N=35)

Difficulty face by student

M SD

14.6 3.0

M SD

14.4 3.6

Management Attitude

12.8 2.9

12.2 3.5

ICT Awareness

17.2 3.1

15.2 3.6

ICT Tools

7.2 1.4

6.8 1.5

Total

51.8 10.4

48.6 12.2

The above table no 13 shows Means and Standard Deviation of private and public sectors universities , students on hindrance in the use of ICT for the variable Gender. Result indicates the level of hindrance is higher among Male Students. The major hindrances faced by various groups of students were ICT Awarness, next higher was management attitude.

One way ANOVA of ICT on variable gender of students

Table #14 One way ANOVA of variable “gender of students”

ANOVA

DF

Mean Square

F

Sig

ICT

Between groups

Within groups

1

58

58.333

12.028

4.850

.032

Total

59

P<0.05**

Table NO 14 shows that there is a significant difference between response of teachers belonging to both gender on ICT the value of F = 4.850 and level of significance is .032 which is less than 0.05.

Qualification wise Comparison of Mean & Standard Deviation of Hindrance in the use of ICT face by University Teachers

For measuring the hindrances in the use of ICT of Teachers in Public and Private sectors universities for the variable Qualification” Mean and Standard Deviation were computed.

Table 15

QUALIFICATION

Subscale of ICT Hindrances Questionnaire

Master

(N=12)

MPHIL

(N=23)

P.H.D

(N=50)

Difficulty face by teachers

M SD

22.5 2.9

M SD

26.1 3.7

M SD

22.2 2.2

Management Attitude

12.5 3.2

13.1 4.1

10.4 1.1

ICT Awareness

6.5 1.8

7.6 1.4

5.6 0.5

ICT Tools

18.7 2.9

21.1 5.1

18.8 4.7

Total

60.2 10.8

67.9 13.9

57.0 8.5

Table no 15 shows Means and Standard Deviation of private and public sectors universities on hindrance in the use of ICT for the variable Qualification. Result indicates that level of hindrances is higher among M Phil Teachers. The major hindrances faced by various groups of teachers were lack of ICT related equipments ,next higher was management attitude.


Qualification wise Comparison of Mean & Standard Deviation of Hindrance in the use of ICT face by University Student

Table # 17

For measuring the hindrance in the use of ICT of Teachers in Public and Private sectors universities for the variable “Qualification” Mean and Standard Deviation were computed

Qualification

Subscale of ICT Hindrances Questionnaire

Bs Hons

(N=34)

Master

(N=20)

MPhil

(N=6)

Difficulty face by student

M SD

14.7 3.7

M SD

13.7 3.0

M SD

16.0 2.2

Management Attitude

12.5 3.4

11.6 2.7

14.8 3.9

ICT Awareness

16.4 3.8

15.3 2.9

16.3 3.8

ICT Tools

7.0 1.6

7.0 1.5

6.6 1.0

Total

50.2 12.5

47.0 10.1

53.7 10.9

The above table no 17 shows Means and Standard Deviation of private and public sectors universities students on hindrance in the use of ICT for the variable qualification. Result indicates the level of hindrance is higher among 31-40 MPhil Students. The major hindrances faced by various groups of teachers were ICT Awarness, next higher was management attitude.

Institution wise Comparison of Mean & Standard Deviation of Hindrance in the use of ICT face by University Teachers

Table # 18

For measuring the hindrances in the use of ICT of Teachers in Public and Private sectors universities for the variable “Institution” Mean and Standard Deviation were computed.

INSTITUTION

Subscale of ICT Hindrances Questionnaire

Public

(N=27)

Private

(N=13)

Difficulty face by teachers

M SD

24.6 3.7

M SD

24.3 4.1

Management attitude

12.7 3.9

12.3 3.1

ICT awareness

7.1 1.7

6.9 1.4

ICT Tools

19.4 4.8

21.5 3.9

Total

63.8 14.1

65.0 11.6

The above table no 18 shows Means and Standard Deviation of private and public sectors universities on hindrance in the use of ICT for the variable institutions. From this table it shows that teachers those are working in public sectors are experiencing less hindrances as compared to private sector teachers. The major hindrances faced by various groups of teachers in private sector universities were lack of ICT equipment ,next higher was management attitude.

Institution wise Comparison of Mean & Standard Deviation of Hindrance in the use of ICT face by University Student

Table # 19

For measuring the hindrance in the use of ICT of Teachers in Public and Private sectors universities for the variable “Institute” Mean and Standard Deviation were computed.

INSTITUTIONS

Subscale of ICT Hindrances Questionnaire

Public

(N=24)

Private

(N=36)

Difficulty face by student

M SD

13.9 3.8

M SD

14.8 3.0

Management Attitude

12.6 4.0

12.3 12.6

ICT Awareness

16.0 4.4

16.0 2.9

ICT Tools

7.2 1.7

6.8 1.3

Total

49.7 13.9

49.9 19.8

The above table no 19 shows Means and Standard Deviation of private and public sectors universities on hindrance in the use of ICT for the variable institution. . From this table it shows there are no significant differences in hindrances faced by students of public and private sector universities. The major hindrances faced by various groups of students in public and private sector universities were lack of ICT Awareness, next higher was Management attitude.

Income wise Comparison of Mean & Standard Deviation of Hindrance in the use of ICT face by University Teachers

Table # 20

For measuring the hindrance in the use of ICT of Teachers in Public and Private sectors universities for the variable “Income” Mean and Standard Deviation were computed.

INCOME

Subscale of ICT Hindrances Questionnaire

10,000-30,000

(N=12)

31,000-50,000

(N=17)

More than 50,000

(N=11)

Difficulty face by student

M SD

23.2 2.9

M SD

25.0 3.5

M SD

25.2 4.9

Management Attitude

12.3 3.2

13.3 4.2

11.7 3.1

ICT Awareness

20.0 5.3

19.5 3.9

21.0 4.8

ICT Tools

6.6 1.7

7.3 1.7

7.0 1.4

Total

62.1 13.1

65.1 13.3

64.9 14.2

The above table no 20 shows Means and Standard Deviation of private and public sectors universities on hindrance in the use of ICT for the variable income. Result indicates the level of hindrance is higher among 31,000-50,000 Income wise Teachers. The major hindrances faced by various groups of teachers in were lack of ICT awarness ,next higher was management attitude.

Job wise Comparison of Mean & Standard Deviation of Hindrance in the use of ICT face by University Teachers

For measuring the hindrance in the use of ICT of Teachers in Public and Private sectors universities for the variable “Job” Mean and Standard Deviation were computed.

Table # 21

NATURE OF JOB

Subscale of ICT Hindrances Questionnaire

Contract

(N=18)

Permanent

(N=21)

Difficulty face by student

M SD

24.3 3.2

M SD

24.7 3.2

Management Attitude

12.4 3.0

12.8 4.2

ICT Awareness

20.7 4.9

19.4 4.3

ICT Tools

7.2 1.7

6.9 1.5

Total

64.6 12.8

63.8 13.2

The above table no 21 shows Means and Standard Deviation of Private and Public sectors universities on hindrance in the use of ICT for the variable Job. Result indicates that no significant difference hindrance faced by contract and permanent employees. The major hindrances faced by various groups of teachers in were lack of ICT awareness, next higher was management attitude.

Experience wise Comparison of Mean & Standard Deviation of Hindrance in the use of ICT face by University Teachers

Table # 22

For measuring the hindrance in the use of ICT of Teachers in Public and Private sectors universities for the variable “Experience” Mean and Standard Deviation was computed.

EXPERIENCE

Subscale of ICT Hindrances Questionnaire

1-5 Years

(N=25)

5-10Years

(N=11)

10-15Years

(N=4)

Difficulty face by student

M SD

24.7 3.1

M SD

24.2 4.3

M SD

24.0 6.6

Management Attitude

13.0 3.8

12.2 3.5

10.7 2.5

ICT Awareness

20.0 4.2

18.8 4.8

22.5 4.9

ICT Tools

7.2 1.5

7.0 1.8

6.2 1.8

Total

64.9 12.6

61.4 14.4

63.4 15.8

The above table no 22 shows Means and Standard Deviation of Private and Public sectors universities on hindrance in the use of ICT for the variable Experience .Result indicates the level of hindrance is higher among those teachers who have less work experience. The major hindrances faced by various groups of teachers in were lack of ICT awareness, next higher was management attitude.

Computer wise Comparison of Mean & Standard Deviation of Hindrance in the use of ICT face by University Students

Table # 23

For measuring the hindrance in the use of ICT of Teachers in Public and Private sectors universities for the variable “Computer” Mean and Standard Deviation is computed

Computer

Subscale of ICT Hindrances Questionnaire

Basic

(N=15)

Intermediate

(N=29)

Advance

(N=16)

Difficulty face by student

M SD

14.6 3.8

M SD

14.4 3.3

M SD

14.5 3.3

Management Attitude

12.2 3.5

11.8 3.4

13.8 2.3

ICT Awareness

14.6 3.2

15.7 3.3

17.7 3.8

ICT Tools

7.0 1.9

7.0 1.4

7.0 1.2

Total

34.4 12.4

48.9 11.4

53.0 10.6

The above table no 23 shows Means and Standard Deviation of private and public sectors universities on hindrance in the use of ICT for the variable Computer. Result indicates the level of hindrance is higher among Professional Students.

11. DISCUSSION


The problem of the study was to explore hindrances in the use of ICT in the public and private universities of Islamabad, It future aims to investigate the role of management in popularising ICT among private and public sector universities. The study was based on the sample of 100 in which 40 teachers and 60 students working and studying in private and public sector universities in Islamabad. The primarily aimed of the study was to address the research objectives. First, objective of the study was to identify the hindrances in the use of ICT in public and private sectors universities in Islamabad ,second was to find out the reason in the deficiency of ICT facilities available in public and private sectors thirdly to find out the factor which are hindering the teachers and learners in the use of ICT. To fulfil these objectives various hypotheses were formulate, various statistical techniques were carried out such as alpha reliability, means, standand deviation, percentile and ANOVA.

The result indicated that items were significantly positively correlated with all of total scale. The highest correlation among all is in between the teachers and ICT Tools Availability which is (.852**). The highest correlation exist between difficulty faced by Teachers and ICT Tools Availability that is (.599**). The highest correlation exist between students and ICT Tools which is (.849**) and correlation between the subscales of hindrances in the use of ICT in management attitude and ICT Tools that is (.596**).

Reliability of teachers score was calculated by dividing the items into two parts by split half method. The reliability of IST twelve items was .676 and reliability of 2nd 12 item was.791 & their correlation was .624.Reliability of students score was also calculated by the splits half method. .The reliability of I st ten items was .779 and reliability of 2nd 10 item was .606 & their correlation was .410.

12. FINDINGS

Following findings were drawn from the research:

  1. At presents teachers of private and public sector are facing several hindrances in the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching learning context.
  2. Study found out that at presents students of private and public sector are facing several hindrances in the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in teaching learning context.
  3. Difference in the level of hindrances in the use of ICT in private and public sectors universities revealed that teachers those are working in the private sector universities are facing more hindrance as compared to public sectors universities teachers.
  4. Teachers and students demographic variations were also explored to learn more about hindrance, age wise differences of university teachers revealed that middle age teachers were facing more hindrances in the usage of ICT at their work place than teachers of other age groups.
  5. Age wise differences of university students also exposed that middle age students were facing more hindrances in the usage of ICT at their work place than students of other age groups.
  6. Study also bring into being difference in the score of the teachers due to gender, it was discovered that male university teachers were facing more hindrances in the use of ICT in teaching leaning process as compared to female university teachers.
  7. Study found out gender differences of student that male university students were more facing hindrances in the use of ICT in teaching learning process as compared to female university students.
  8. Result establishes that the hindrances in the use of ICT are higher among teachers having M. Phil degree as compared to teachers having Master and PhDs degrees.
  9. Result originate that the hindrances in the use of ICT is experience more by students doing M. Phil as compared to the students of BS and MASTERS programmes.
  10. Results make it clear that teachers with less monthly income (30,000-50,000) are facing more hindrances in the use of ICT as compared to teachers whose income is higher (10,000,30000 & <50,000).
  11. Results highlighted that permanent teachers of private and public sectors universities are facing more hindrances as compared to contract teachers of private & public sectors universities.
  12. The result found out that the university faculty members with less experience have facing high hindrances in the use ICT as compared to university faculty members with more experience.
  13. The result shows that advance user of computers have higher hindrances in the use of ICT as compared to basic and intermediate use.

13. CONCLUSIONS

In the light of analysis of data, it expose that the hindrances’ of ICT. Followings are conclusions drawn from study:

  1. There is significant difference of the hindrances’ in the use of ICT among public and private university and teachers those are working in the private sector universities are having more difficulties while working on ICTs.
  2. Middle age teachers are facing more hindrances’ in the use of ICT as compared to young & old teachers while Middle age students are facing more hindrances’ in the use of ICT as compared to young & old students.
  3. Male teachers are facing more hindrances’ in the use of ICT as compared to female teachers while Male students are facing more hindrances’ in the use of ICT as compared to female students
  4. M. Phil teachers have more hindrances in the use of ICT as compared to MASTERS and PhDs qualification teachers while M. Phil students have more hindrances in the use of ICT BS and MASTERS programme of students.
  5. On the whole, private sectors universities teachers facing more hindrances in the ICT use as compared to public sectors universities teachers.
  6. Private sectors universities students facing more hindrances in the ICT use as compared to public sectors universities students while Teachers with less monthly income ( 30,000-50,000) have more hindrances in the use of ICT as compared to teachers whose income is 10,000,30000 & <50,000.
  7. Permanent teachers have more hindrances in the usage of ICT as compared to contract teachers of private & public sectors universities while Teacher with less experience have more hindrances’ in the use ICT as compared with experienced teachers.
  8. Advance user of computers has higher hindrances in the use of ICT as compared to basic and intermediate use.

14. RECOMMENDATIONS

It is a long way processes to run ICT in an under developing countries like ours.

Institution should have to provide a proper evaluation and incentives plan on the integration of ICT tools in teaching.

1. Institution show serious concern for the promotion & improvement of ICT software’s there should be proper training for male teachers to educate them the use of ICT & its importance in current technological world. Provision of skilled & supporting staff will big help in male students learning process which is also need to modern world. Management should be provided proper finance to overcome the deficiencies for the proper utilization and maintenance of ICT tool to MPHIL teachers.

2. Availability of ICT tools of new age of computer era must be introduced in all education sectors & awareness of latest technology connected through computer or IT use software in teaching learning processes.

3. Results revealed that private sector universities teachers are facing more hindrance in the use of use of ICTs, it is recommended that management of private sectors universities may provide more effective network for the continuous use of ICT during learning.

4. In-service training as one of the priority make available for middle age teachers and also recommend that technical and pedagogical skills also combine with such packages in order to gain most training.

5. Middle age students should concentrate on technology & try to get knowledge of social media.

6. Department or authority should planned policy of education in accordance with the category of M. Phil students. Educationist must consider the maturarity of all students of M. Phil while forwarding lectures.

7. Curricula should be concise but comprehensive in nature, keeping in mind time of lectures and total period of semester .So that private sector teachers implement the ICT in better way.

8. In-services courses should be arranged regularly for permanent teachers, to enables teachers to acquire ICT skills.

9. Less experience teachers should be gathered information related to ICT and takes guideline from skilled teachers & less skilled teachers can play a role to fulfil the deficiency of less experience teachers.

REFERENCES

I. Aduke A,F on (2008) usage and challenges of information and technology ICT in teaching and learning in Nigerian universities Asian Journals of information Technology 7(7), 290 -295.

II. Becta 2004 A Review of the research literature on the Barriers to the uptake of ICT by Teachers 7 _17.

III. Bradley, G, Russels G.1997 Computer Experience, school, support & computer Anxieties.Educational Psychology 17(3) pp. 267 _284

IV. Butler ,D.Sellborn,M.(2002)Barriers to adopting technology for teaching and learning.Educase Quaterly ,25 (2) pp. 22_28

V. Haliso Y., 2004.Factor effecting information & communication technologies (ICTs) use by acedamic Librarian in Southwestern Nigeria VOL, 4

VI. Hennessy S (2010) Developing the use of information and communication technology to enhance teaching and learning in East Africans: Review of Literature .Aga Khan University, Nairobi Kenya.

VII. Khalid Abdullah Bingimals 2009, Barriers to the successful integration of ICT in Teaching and Learning Enviornments 5(3),235_225.

VIII. Kumpulainen, K (ED) (2007) Educational technology opportunities & challanges .Oulu, Finland university of Oulu.

IX. Laaria Mingaine (2013) Challenges in the implementation of ICT in Public Secondary Schools in Kenya 234_236

X. Ofodu, G.O (2009). Nigera Literacy educations & their technology needs in a digital age Education Focus, 1(1) 22_30.

XI. Ougunsola, L.A., &Abuyade, W.A (2005). Information & communication technology in Nigeria: Revolution or Evolution .Journals of Social Science, 11(1), 7_14.


XII. Pelgrum, W.J (2001) Obstacles to the integration of ICT in education: result from worldwide educational assessment Computer & Education, 37 163_178.

XIII. Shariful I.M and Nazmul I.M, 2007 .Use of ICT in libraries: an emperical study of selected libraries in Bangladesh.library of philosphy and practice.

XIV. Usluel, Y.K, as Kar P., and Bas_, T (2008), A structural equation model for ICT usage in higher education .Educational Technology and society, 11,262_273.

XV. Venkatesh, Davis, Morris and Davis G.B 2003) oser acceptance of information technology, toward a unified view MIS Quarterly 27 (3) 425 _478.



Be a part of worldclass research: Publish with us